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Li Zhang. Zhenqiang Hong. Haiyin Zheng. Nan Li. Hongjian Gao. Boyi Chen. Yi Zhao. This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry. Apoptotic body was labeled with red arrows. The relative optical densities were indicated in B and D. Actin was used as internal control.
The relative optical densities were indicated in B. Recently, antitumor activity of PZH on several tumors have been increasingly reported, but its antitumor activity and the possible action mechanism on osteosarcoma remains unclear.
After treatment with PZH, cell viability of MG cells was dose-dependently inhibited compared to control cells. Further investigation showed that PZH treatments led to activation of caspase cascades and changes of apoptotic mediators Bcl2, Bax, and Bcl-xL expression. Free pien revealed that PZH possesses antitumoral activity on human osteosarcoma MG63 cells by manipulating apoptotic aling and multiple pathways. It is suggested that PZH alone or combined with regular antitumor drugs may be beneficial as osteosarcoma treatments. Introduction Osteosarcoma is a common pediatric primary bone malignant tumor, whose incidence is the highest in primary bone malignant tumors [ 1 ].
It is most prevalent in children and young adults. Incidence rates for osteosarcoma in U. Because of its high deterioration, poor prognosis and high damage, it becomes a difficult problem in medical field [ 4 ]. At present, there are mainly surgical operation and chemotherapy to treat this disease in clinic. Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy in Osteosarcoma free pien made some progress, but these drugs are known to cause serious systemic toxicity, their limitations are more and more obvious [ 56 ]. There is still lack of effective therapy. Therefore, it is extremely urgent to develop favorable and low side-effects therapeutic agents.
Traditional Chinese medicine have multi-ways, multi-targets, and fewer side effects in the treatment of this free pien. PZH is a well-known traditional Chinese formulation first prescribed by a royal physician years ago during the Ming Dynasty. PZH has properties of heat-clearing, detoxification, promotion of blood circulation and removal of blood stasis [ 7 ]. PZH has long been used as an alternative remedy for cancers in China and Southeast Asia and it has been listed as one of the national treasures in the catalogue of National Protected Traditional Chinese Medicines.
ly, our team has evaluated PZH on human osteosarcoma transplant mice model and osteosarcoma MG63 cell [ 89101112 ]. Our former research showed that it could promote cell differentiation, induce apoptosis of osteosarcoma in vitro study and inhibit osteosarcoma growth in vivo experiment.
However, the mechanism of its anticancer activity, such as apoptosis, still remains largely unknown. Herein, to further elucidate the mechanism of the tumoricidal activity of PZH, the current study was deed to confirm the potential effects of PZH and elucidate the underlying tumoricidal molecular mechanisms. Meanwhile, PZH is a complex combination of natural products, each of which contains free pien chemical compounds, so it is considered that the efficacy of PZH is associated with the synergistic or interactive work of numerous chemicals, including bile acids from calculus bovis, saponins from panax notoginseng, muscone from moschus and conjugated bile acids from snake gall [ 131415161718 ].
Thus, the compounds of PZH was also determined as much as possible in this study. The result revealed the average presence of notoginsenoside R1 While the human osteosarcoma MG63 cells with PZH suppressed cells proliferation, cells atrophied, became round and ultimately died.
Moreover, the effect is dose-dependent. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. The showed that the cell viability was inhibited by PZH in a concentration dependent manner Figure 3. As shown in Figure 4morphology of MG63 cells in control group was normal, nuclei was round or oval and nuclear fragmentation phenomenon was not seen.
However, the layer of PZH-treated cell became thinner with pyknotic nuclei, more nuclear fragmentation phenomenon was observed than in free pien control. As shown in Figure 5the indicate a ificant increase in inter-nucleosomal DNA fragmentation of MG63 cells. Caspases and members of the family of the Bcl-2 play an important role in cells apoptosis. In the present study, caspase-3, caspase-9 and Bax which can potentially induce apoptosis in cells were analyzed by western blot analysis, as well as anti-apoptosis proteins, such as Bcl-xL and Bcl The showed that PZH elevated activity of caspase-3, caspase-9 and Bax in a dose dependent manner in MG63 cells.
In the physiological or pathological condition, the process of internal cells death occurs spontaneously and procedurally.
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This is called the apoptosis of cells [ 19 ]. The most important effectors of apoptosis are caspases, pro-apoptotic protein of Bcl family, which take part in a tightly regulated proteolytic cascade [ 2021 ]. studies have confirmed that caspases are the main executioners of apoptosis in vivoand play a very important role in the process of apoptosis [ 22 ]. In this process, caspase-9 as the initiation factor of apoptosis, can activate the classic endogenous free pien apoptosis pathway, then activate caspase-3 free pien. Caspase-3 is the executive factor of apoptosis, they work together to induce the apoptosis of cells [ 23 ].
Therefore, cell apoptosis situation can be measured by detecting the expression of Caspase-3 and Caspase Bcl-2 family members are another main controllers of apoptosis in many cell types. They are divided into two groups: anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, Bcl-xL et al. The balance between pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins is consider as to evaluate cell death or survival by controlling apoptosis [ 25 ]. It is proved that the activity of the Bcl-2 protein may be regulated through caspases cleavage under various circumstances [ 26 ].
The detection of Western-blot analysis showed that activation of caspase-3, caspase-9 and Bax increased ificantly by PZH and Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL proteins expression were inhibited ificantly.
It showed free pien conformity of the with research [ 9101112 ]. Combined with the cells proliferation and DNA fragmentation analysisit is indicated that PZH could induce the apoptosis of osteosarcoma MG63 cells. P-Akt can effectively control many related protein expression, cells proliferation, cells migration and invasion, inhibition of cell apoptosis [ 30 ].
Some researchers have found that p-Akt is high activated state in ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, follicular thyroid cancer and lung cancer [ 2931 ]. However, p53 and p21 levels were reduced after PTH treatment. PTH possesses potent antitumoral activity, but p53 and p21 levels did not express in ificant s.